1. Personal data shall mean any information relating to a natural person, the data subject, who is identified or who can be identified directly or indirectly by reference to such data as a personal identification number or one or more factors specific to his physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural or social identity.
8. Special categories of personal data shall mean data concerning racial or ethnic origin of a natural person, his political opinions or religious, philosophical or other beliefs, membership in trade unions, and his health, sexual life and criminal convictions.
Article 5. Criteria for Lawful Processing of Personal Data
2. It shall be prohibited to process special categories of personal data, except in the following cases:
1) the data subject has given his consent;
2) such processing is necessary for the purposes of employment or civil service while exercising rights and fulfilling obligations of the data controller in the field of labour law in the cases laid down in laws;
3) it is necessary to protect vital interests of the data subject or of any other person, where the data subject is unable to give his consent due to a physical disability or legal incapacity;
4) processing of personal data is carried out for political, philosophical, religious purposes or purposes concerning the trade-unions by a foundation, association or any other non-profit organisation, as part of its activities, on condition that the personal data processed concern solely the members of such organisation or to other persons who regularly participate in such organisation in connection with its purposes. Such personal data may not be disclosed to a third party without the data subject’s consent;
5) the personal data have been made public by the data subject;
6) the data are necessary, in the cases laid down in laws, in order to prevent and investigate criminal or other illegal activities;
7) the data are necessary for a court hearing;
8) it is a legal obligation of the data controller under laws to process such data.
3. The data about a person’s health may also be processed for the purposes and in the procedure laid down in Article 10 of this Law and other laws pertaining to health care.
4. Personal data relating to a person's record of conviction, criminal acts or security measures may be processed, for crime prevention, investigation purposes and in other cases laid down by laws, only by a state institution or agency in the manner laid down in laws. Other natural or legal persons may process such data in the cases laid down by laws provided that appropriate measures laid down in laws and other legal acts for the protection of legitimate interests of the data subject have been adequately implemented. Detailed data about previous convictions may be processed only according to the procedure laid by the Law on State Registers.
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